venerdì 12 febbraio 2010
Ánanda Sútram (chapter 2)
This version is the Shrii Shrii Anandamurti's Ánanda Sútram, chapter 2, 2nd edition, 2nd printing, taken from present Electronic Edition.
2-1. Anukúlavedaniiyaḿ sukham.
[A congenial mental feeling is called happiness.]
Purport: If the mental waves of someone whose saḿskára happens to be the quiescent form of those waves, find similar waves emanating either from any crude object or from any other mind-entity, then those waves, in that person’s case, are said to be complementary and reciprocal. The contact of these mutually-sympathetic waves is what is called happiness.
2-2. Sukhánuraktih paramá jaeviivrttih.
[The attachment to happiness is the primary vrtti (propensity) of living beings.]
Purport: Every living being wants to keep itself alive, and this self-preserving instinct is a mental faculty. Want of happiness endangers one’s very sense of existence, and so one does not want the want of happiness; one wants to have the pervasiveness of happiness as one’s sole refuge.
[Infinite happiness is ánanda (bliss).]
Purport: No living being is content with a little, not to speak of human beings. And so, small happiness fills nobody’s bill. One wants endless happiness. This endless happiness is a condition beyond the precincts of weal and woe, because the sense of happiness that is perceivable with the help of the senses oversteps the limit of the sense organs when established in limitlessness. This limitless happiness is what is known as ánanda [bliss].
2-4. Ánandaḿ Brahma ityáhuh.
[This ánanda is called Brahma.]
Purport: The limitless object is one, not many. Many-ness can have no quarter in endlessness. That self-same blissful entity is indeed Brahma, which is the composite of Shiva and Shakti.
2-5. Tasminnupalabdhe paramá trśńánivrttih.
[That (Brahma) having been attained, all thirst is permanently quenched.]
Purport: There is in the living being a thirst for limitlessness. It is not possible for limited objects to quench one’s thirst. Brahma is the only limitless entity, and so establishment in Brahma’s bearing alone puts an end to all thirsts or cravings.
2-6. Brhadeśańáprańidhánaḿ ca dharmah.
[To long for and run after the Great is dharma.]
Purport: And so knowingly or unknowingly, human beings are indeed running after limitlessness. When knowingly one tries to attain the Great and to that end one prays, that bearing is called dharma, and the effort involved is called dharma sádhaná [the practice of dharma].
2-7. Tasmáddharmah sadákáryah.
[Therefore dharma should always be practised.]
Purport: Since happiness is the cherished goal of all, and the desire for happiness is not to be satiated without the attainment of limitlessness, and then again since this attainment of limitlessness itself is dharma sádhaná, then dharma sádhaná is indispensable for every living being. Creatures inferior to humans cannot do dharma sádhaná due to their undeveloped minds. But humans can, and the one who does not do it ill fits the epithet of human being.
2-8. Viśaye puruśávabhásah jiivátmá.
[The reflection of Puruśa in a unit object is called the jiivátmá (unit soul).]
Purport: In spiritual parlance the Soul is one. In whatever condition the mind be – manifest (e.g., in animate beings and plants) or unmanifest (e.g., in inanimate earth, iron, etc.), the Átmá goes on reflecting itself on it and its objects – the crude objects. The reflection of the Soul on the mind is called the jiivátmá, and in that case the Reflector-Soul is called Paramátmá [Supreme Soul] or Pratyagátmá. (Pratiipaḿ vipariitaḿ aincati vijánáti iti pratyak [“That which takes a stance opposite to a thing and witnesses that thing is pratyak”].) The jiivátmá may also be called ańucaetanya [microcosmic consciousness]. Similarly we may call Paramátmá by the name of Bhúmá Caetanya [Macrocosmic Consciousness]. The totality of microcosms is the Macrocosm. In a way this assertion is true, because every mind or crude entity is holding the Supreme Spirit according to its individual capacity. Their collective capacity is indeed the capacity of the Macrocosmic Mind. The Paramátmá is the ultimate knower of the Macrocosmic Mind, and that is why Paramátmá is called Bhúmá Caetanya.
2-9. Átmani sattásaḿsthitih.
[Every entity is embedded finally in the Átman.]
Purport: The object-entity finds its substantiation in the receptacle of the citta; the receptacle of the citta in the Doer “I”, or Owner “I”, that is, in the Ahaḿtattva; the receptacle of the Doer “I”, or Owner “I”, in the sense of existence (i.e., in “I am” or Mahattattva). The knowledge of the “I am” entity, that is, “I know I am” – in the absence of this knowership, the entitative sense of “I am” or “my existence” remains in jeopardy – unsubstantiated. And so at the root of everything remains “I know” and the next that follows is “I am”. This “I” of “I know” is the Soul, and so the sense of all entities depends on the Átman.
2-10. Otahprotah yogábhyáḿ saḿyuktah Puruśottamah.
[Puruśottama is linked to each entity individually and to all entities collectively.]
Purport: Puruśottama, the Nucleus of the universe, is the witness of and is directly concerned with every unit entity. This association of His is called ota yoga [the yoga of individual association]. Evidently Puruśottama is the collective entity of the universe as well as witness of the collective mind. This association of His with the collectivity is called prota yoga [the yoga of pervasive association]. In other words, it may be said that the one who is associated with His objects through both ota and prota yogas at the same time is Puruśottama.
2-11. Mánasátiite anavastháyáḿ jagadbiijam.
[The seed of the universe lies beyond the mind, in a state the mind cannot comprehend.]
Purport: Every created object obeys the law of cause and effect. In our quest for the cause of action in pratisaincara, we arrive at the five fundamental elements. Similarly, in our quest for the cause of action in saincara, we arrive at the Mahat of the Great. The mind having no locus standi beyond the Mahat, such a state is the supra-mental state of the mind. In this supra-mental state, it is beyond the capacity of the mind to determine the principle of cause and effect, for further probings will entail the fallacy of infinite regress; that is to say, to think of the existence of the mind in a state where it does not exist is indeed fallacious. Hence the query as to when did the creation take place, and why, is redundant and untenable.
2-12. Saguńát srśt́irutpattih.
[The creation originates from Saguńa Brahma.]
Purport: But since the created world is concerned with the guńas, then it is true that it was evolved in Saguńa Brahma, not Nirguńa.
2-13. Puruśadehe jagadábhásah.
[The universe takes form within the Cognitive Body.]
Purport: All that is manifest and unmanifest in the world is embodied in the Bráhmiidehe [Cosmic Body]. No one and nothing is outside Brahma. The name “outsider” is a misnomer – a nonentity.
2-14. Brahma Satyaḿ jagadapi satyamápekśikam.
[Brahma is Absolute Truth; the universe is also truth, but relative.]
Purport: Brahma is Satya [Truth], that is, unchangeable. But we cannot say that the changes that are perceived apparently on the body of Brahma under the influence of Prakrti and the three fundamental relative factors of time, space and person are false, nor can we say that they are eternal truths. All that we can say is that they are relative truths, for the apparent changes are dependent on the relativity of these three factors, that is, time, space and person. The unit-entity or the unit mind, also, in its progressive bearing, is involved with these three factors, hence its existence also is a relative factor. One relative entity appears to be a spiritual truth to another relative entity, and so the changeable world appears to be a truth to the changeable living unit.
2-15. Puruśah akartá phalasákśiibhútah bhávakendrasthitah guńayantrákashca.
[Puruśa does no action (directly), but is the witnessing entity of actions and reactions; located at the nucleus of Saguńa Brahma, He is the controller of the guńas.]
Purport: That Puruśa is established at the nucleus of all entities is true of both individuality and collectivity. This very Puruśa of the nucleus of the collectivity is Puruśottama. When energy is begotten in the object-body in the wake of the flow of the Operative Principle, then the controller of this energy is called kartá. Puruśa does not control this sort of energy, on the contrary, He, being established at the nucleus of the guńas, controls those very guńas through which energy emanates. Hence the controller, Puruśa or Puruśottama, is not subject to the guńas but is the governor or sovereign head thereof.
2-16. Akartrii viśayasaḿyuktá Buddhih Mahadvá.
[The Buddhitattva, or Mahattattva, itself is not the doer, but remains associated with objects.]
Purport: The Buddhitattva, or Mahattattva, itself does not do anything, but remains involved with the objects.
2-17. Ahaḿ kartá pratyakśaphalabhoktá.
[The Aham is the doer, and directly enjoys or suffers the results of action.]
Purport: The Ahaḿtattva is really the master or doer of acts and also is the enjoyer and endurer of the fruits of actions.
2-18. Karmaphalaḿ cittam.
[The citta takes the form of the results of actions.]
Purport: The citta takes the form of the fruits of actions.
2-19. Vikrtacittasya púrvávasthápráptirphalabhogah.
[The process through which the distorted citta regains its original state is the enjoyment or suffering of the results of actions.]
Purport: Action means transmutation of citta. If we call this attainment of simulative transformation vikrti [distortion], then the process of citta’s re-attaining its previous state is to be called karmaphala bhoga [the experience of requitals (pleasure and pain)].
2-20. Na svargo na rasátalah.
[There is neither heaven nor hell.]
Purport: There exists no such thing as heaven or hell. When a person does a virtuous act or enjoys the fruits thereof, the environment around him or her is then called heaven; and when he or she does an evil act and endures the consequences thereof, then the environment around that person becomes a hell for him or her.
2-21. Bhúmácitte saincaradháráyáḿ jad́ábhásah.
[In the flow of saincara, matter takes form in the Cosmic citta.]
Purport: The ákáshatattva [vyomatattva, ethereal factor] is evolved through the greater influence of Prakrti’s static principle over the Cosmic citta. The influence of the static principle over the ákáshatattva begets the maruttattva [aerial factor]. In this way are evolved the tejastattva [luminous factor] from the marut, the apatattva [liquid factor] from the tejas, and the kśititattva [solid factor] from the liquid. These ethereal, aerial, luminous, liquid and solid factors are known as the five mahábhútas [fundamental elements] because all other bhútas [bodies] or evolved objects are begotten out of these elements.
2-22. Bhútalakśańátmakaḿ bhútabáhitaḿ bhútasaungharśaspandanaḿ tanmátram.
[Tanmátras (microscopic fractions of bhútas, or fundamental factors) represent the bhútas, are carried by the bhútas, and are created by vibrations from the clash within the bhútas.]
Purport: The stirrings in the object-bodies that are created through internal and external pressures reach the different gates of the indriyas [organs] of the unit-body in the form of waves flowing through the media of subtler bodies. These waves, flowing from those gates of organs through different nerves or with the help of internal secretions thereof, reach particular appropriative points of the brain. Thereafter, according to those waves, the simulative citta [mental plate] adopts the vibrative forms of the external bodies. Those simulative, appropriative waves bring the citta into contact with external bodies such as sound, touch, form, taste or smell. Such waves are called the tanmátras [sensible or super-sensible inferences or generic essences].
2-23. Bhútaḿ tanmátreńa pariciiyate.
[The bhútas are recognized by their corresponding tanmátras.]
Purport: The category of the physical elements an object belongs to is determined by the tanmátra emanating from that object. The ethereal factor has the capacity of imbibing or carrying the sound tanmátra, the aerial factor has the capacity of imbibing or carrying the sound and touch tanmátra, the luminous factor, of the sound, touch, and form tanmátras, and the liquid factor, of the sound, touch, form and taste tanmátras. The solid factor has the capacity of imbibing or carrying all five tanmátras: sound, touch, form, taste and smell.
In order to ascertain the category of the physical elements an object belongs to, we will have to base our findings on the crudest of the tanmátras the particular object carries. The function of the five sensory organs – eyes, ears, nose, tongue and skin – is to receive the tanmátras from the external objects or elements. The function of the motor organs – vocal cord, hands, legs, anus and generative organ – is to transmit the inherent tanmátras outside with the help of saḿjiṋá [internal sense], and the function of the práńendriya [vital forces] is to conjoin the objectivity with the mind-stuff, as well as to create in the citta a sense of lightness, heaviness, warmth or coldness.
2-24. Dvárah nád́iirasah piit́hátmakáni indriyáńi.
[The indriyas (organs) are the composite of: the gateways of the organs, the nerves, the nerve fluid, and the appropriative piit́has (seats) of the organs (in the brain).]
Purport: The gates of organs (i.e., the gates of the living bodies where tanmátras first bring the objectivity), the nerve fibres, which react to the waves of the tanmátras, the nerve secretions, which get vibrated by the tanmátrik vibrations, and the points of the nerve-cells, whereat the tanmátrik waves are conjoined with the citta, are collectively called the indriyas [organs]. That is to say, the optical nerve, the optical fluid and the optic point of the nerve cell that are active behind what we commonly call the eyes are collectively called the eye indriya.
1962 published in: Ánanda Sútram; Ananda Marga Philosophy in a Nutshell Part 2 [a compilation]; Supreme Expression Volume 1 [a compilation].